The challenges associated with ethics of research involving human subjects in Indonesia are increasingly complex, thus cannot be sufficiently addressed by establishing ethics review committees and codes of research ethics alone. The Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs advocates a broader institutional perspective, moving beyond a narrow focus on ethics review committee to examine whether policies and procedures of the institution as a whole result in an effective scheme for the protection of human research subjects. Their models suggest a system consisting of: institutions, researchers, ethics review committees, human subjects and legal authorities. Another framework, based on Amartya Sen’s model of development as freedom, links a country’s developmental status with systems for the protection of human research subjects and promotion of ethical research conduct. Hyder et al draw on this notion to suggest a systems approach to research ethics and describe the research ethics system as a regulatory function of a research system. This presentation will deliberate the relevance of such system to ensure effective protection of research participants and promotion of ethical conduct of research in Indonesia (oiac/filsafat).